BC Basic Income Panel

Research Papers


Gender-Based Analysis Plus (GBA+) and Intersectionality: Overview, an Enhanced Framework, and a British Columbia Case Study

Anna Cameron & Lindsay M. Tedds (University of Calgary)

In this paper, we present an overview of GBA+ and its central components, as well as a case study application of the framework to the question of poverty in the British Columbia context. We begin by tracing the theoretical foundations and development of SWC’s GBA+ tool, touching on the relevance of the framework given broader government goals of diversity, inclusion, and inclusive growth. Next, we consider the limitations and potential of GBA+ as operationalized in Canada, and then build on this analysis to adjust the existing GBA+ tool, with the goals of better incorporating the concept of intersectionality and rendering the framework useful beyond governmental contexts. Finally, we apply relevant elements of the adapted framework in a case study, examining the issue of poverty in B.C. from a gendered and intersectional perspective. Our main finding is that exploring the nature and causes of poverty in B.C. results in a harrowing picture, both of need and oppression, and one that government systems have been complicit in constructing. As a result, the BC Government will need to implement GBA+ frameworks within a context that includes broader reconsiderations of government process, structures, institutions, and norms, with an aim to remove discrimination and bias (e.g., heteronormativity, colonialism, misogyny, ableism). Ultimately, an understanding of both the broad context of systemic pathologies and the barriers associated with intersecting identity factors and social positions that shape individual experiences will be integral for analysts hoping to advance agendas of diversity, inclusion, and poverty reduction, particularly through the development of public policy.

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Gender-Based Analysis Plus (GBA+) of the Current System of Income and Social Supports in British Columbia

Gillian Petit & Lindsay M. Tedds (University of Calgary)

This paper is one of three papers focused on bringing a GBA+ lens to the work of the Expert Panel on Basic Income. In Cameron and Tedds (2020b), background is provided on gender and intersectional analysis and an enhanced GBA+ framework is developed based on the Status of Women Canada’s GBA+ tool. In Cameron and Tedds (2020a), a GBA+ analysis is applied to two policy reforms—basic income and basic services—to consider their potential in the context of B.C.’s poverty reduction strategy. In this paper, we apply the enhanced GBA+ analysis to the current system of income and social supports in B.C. along with the suite of proposed reforms recommended in Petit and Tedds (2020d, 2020e) using BI principles. Both of these—BI principles and GBA+/intersectionality—have transformative potential. Applying a GBA+ lens along with BI principles illuminates ways we can address structural barriers such as institutional and systemic discrimination, reducing the risk of poverty among diverse groups and promoting long-term transformative change.

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Gender-Based Analysis Plus (GBA+) of Two Policy Alternatives: Basic Income and Basic Services

Anna Cameron & Lindsay M. Tedds (University of Calgary)

In this paper, we apply GBA+ to two potentially transformative policy approaches—basic income and basic services—to consider their promise in the context of B.C.’s poverty reduction strategy. The core of our analysis is centred on evaluating how each proposal might address poverty in B.C. along intersectional lines, and according to the key dimensions or principles of poverty mitigation and prevention outlined by the B.C. government in its poverty reduction strategy: affordability, opportunity, reconciliation, and social. We also draw on insights regarding the systemic barriers that contribute to greater risk and prevalence of poverty for people whose identities are situated at various axes of difference. We not only consider how the proposals may produce “tangible” outcomes, but also focus on the various ways in which they could transform experiences within and beyond the system of programs, or erect barriers that are not immediately obvious or that may not exist for a “neutral” subject. We demonstrate that the basic income and basic services approaches both have immediate practical value, as well as exhibiting transformative potential, though such impacts largely hinge on how the policies are envisioned and implemented. The most important takeaways from this work are that intersectional groups need access to high-quality public services and, relatedly, that any policy approach that “trades off” services for income will have potentially devastating impacts—particularly for already vulnerable groups.

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